Marriage in Islam

There are many misconceptions held by the Western community regarding Islam. Perhaps the most sensitive and significant of which is the way Islam seemingly promotes the ill-treatment of women in Muslim countries. The apparent lack of women’s rights are a constant source of consternation between the two cultures. This essay seeks to illustrate the difference between the positive Quranic teachings of Islam and the subsequent negative cultural practices that we see in the media. To do this, I will explore the teachings and laws specifically surrounding marriage in Islam. I will demonstrate that the rights afforded to women in Islamic marriages were for many centuries (and in some countries still are), far more progressive and equal than the laws in their Western counterparts. I will also seek to dispel the popular misconception that polygamy is encouraged in Islam and assert that on the contrary, monogamy is the norm. I wish to make clear a certain distinction – that the lack of women’s rights and the abuse of women in Muslim countries is not sanctioned by the Qur’an, that in fact, the Qur’an recognises the important role women play in the community and urge that they are treated with respect and kindness.

To fully understand the teachings of the Qur’an regarding marriage, it is important to briefly examine the marriage traditions and practices common in pre-Islamic Arabia. Women in pre-Islamic Arabia were nothing more than property, bought and sold at the whim of their male guardians. Men had the right to marry as many women as they wished and to divorce them at will (Esposito 2005: 94). Furthermore, women had no right whatsoever to any inheritance, property or income of her own. While a husband could divorce his wife at will, a women had no recourse or rights to divorce at all. So while the Qur’an can still at times sound patriarchal by our western contemporary standards, it is important to look at Islam in its proper historical context. In this view, the teachings of God as spoken through Mohammad sought to radically improve the rights and standing of women both at the time and for many centuries afterwards.

 

The Qur’an made several specific stipulations regarding marriage that significantly improved the rights of women. Marriage in Islam is, first and foremost, a civil contract legalising intercourse between two parties and the subsequent procreation of children (Esposito 2005: 94). It is seen as a sacred contract not just between the bride and groom, but between their two families. As such, arranged marriages in Muslim communities are the norm, as it is the family representatives that identify suitable partners and settle the contractual requirements. Although arranged marriages are the norm in Islam, the Qur’an makes it clear that both parties must be of marriageable age and enter into the agreement of their own free will (Esposito 2005: 95). The woman then, has the right to reject an offer of marriage and not be forced into any marriage against her will.

 

Through the marriage contract, the woman was also given the right to stipulate any special conditions relating to the marriage. Such conditions might include the right to be able to divorce her husband at any time without the requirement of going to court or even to stipulate that he cannot take on another wife (Abu-Saud 1983: 122). A woman may also decide to contractually preserve her right to continue her education or employment after marriage without interference from her husband (Abu-Saud 1983: 122).

 

Upon entering into marriage the groom is also required to give a dowry to the bride. In pre-Islamic times the dowry was a payment that went directly to the father or brother of the bride, thus emphasising the culture of viewing women as property to be bought and sold by men. The Qur’an however, changed this, clearly stipulating that the dowry must be given to the wife (Yaran 2007: 47). The dowry then belongs to the wife as her own independent source of money, to do with as she likes. She need not share it with her husband nor disclose to him what she does with her dowry. Through this, the Qur’an clearly recognised a woman’s right to have a decisive role in her marriage contract instead of simply being bought and sold by her male relatives. For the first time a woman was able to have her own source of wealth.

 

The Qur’an also stipulated that women were entitled to an inheritance (Esposito 2005: 98). Although they were not entitled to as much as the men, they were granted rights and were able to independently own their own property and wealth. Once married then, a woman was also entitled to an inheritance from her husband should he pass away.

 

The Qur’an stipulated rights and responsibilities for both men and women in marriage. Women have the right to receive a dowry and to also receive maintenance. A husband was responsible for the on-going financial support of his wife and ensuring that her material needs were met within the scope of his financial resources (Abu-Saud 1983: 123).  The wife is also entitled to fair, kind and compassionate treatment from her husband. A Muslim wife also has the right to bear children and so is able to divorce her husband should he be found to be sterile or not want children (Abu-Saud 1983: 124). Although it is not easy, the Qur’an also gives a woman the right to divorce her husband.

 

The Qur’an does not sanction honour killings, beatings or the seclusion of women married or otherwise. If there are disagreements in a marriage then the Qur’an stipulates that an arbiter from each side of the family be requested to help the couple peacefully resolve their issues.

 

Contrary to popular belief, polygamy is not the norm in contemporary Islam. Polygamy was not encouraged by the Qur’an but actually restricted the practice in a time when men could marry as many wives as they liked (Muhammad Ali 1995: xxiii). The Qur’an limited this practice to a maximum of four wives per man and, in these instances advocated strict guidelines on when this was appropriate and how those wives must be treated. The Qur’an states that: “if you fear that you cannot deal justly (with so many wives), then one only (4:3). Reading onwards we also see that the Qur’an states that, “You will never be able to deal equally between (your) wives, however much you may desire (to do so)” (4:129 cited in Yaran 2007: 48).

 

The family unit in Islam is of great importance and central to the healthy functioning of a Muslim community. As such, marriage is seen as the responsibility and duty of every good Muslim who is physically and financially able to do so (Esposito 2005: 94). Marriage is seen as not only preserving the sanctity and strength of the Muslim community but also protecting the chastity and morality of its members. With regard to this the Prophet Muhammad said, “Young men, those of you who can support a wife should marry, for it keeps you from looking at strange women and preserves you from immorality” (al-Bukhari cited in Yaran 2007: 47).

 

The Qur’an indicates that a marriage between a man and a woman should be a joyous and much anticipated event joining two families and strengthening communities. According to the Qur’an, a woman can own any property that comes into her possession, she can enter into contracts, receive inheritance and decline marriage proposals. Women and men in Islam then, seem to have been afforded far more equality than most other religions and have done it long before other nations even thought of such concepts. So why then, is the condition of women in many Muslim countries so much worse than their Western counterparts? Why are there female child brides when according to Islam, she must be of marriageable age and have given her consent? Why are there honour killings and why are some Muslim women treated as slaves rather than the partners of their husbands? These questions are serious ones and need to be examined. However, it is equally important to recognise the positive teachings of Islam so as to be able to recognise the difference between true Islam and patriarchal tribal practices. All religions have certain members that will twist and interpret teachings to suit their own ends – Islam is no different. A Muslim marriage that is carried out with the full consent of both parties, in the spirit of respect and compassion that is afforded to both parties, is just as happy and joyous union as any western marriage.

 

 

This is a very interesting website containing all sorts of information regarding Muslim marriage: http://www.zawaj.com/articles.html#weddings

 

In particular is this article (‘Women’s Rights in the Islamic Prenuptial Agreement: Use Them or Lose Them’) concerning the legal rights of Muslim women when drafting their marriage contract: http://www.zawaj.com/articles/prenup_mills.html

 

Esposito, John. 2005. Islam: The Straight Path. Oxford University Press: New York.

 

Maulana Muhammad Ali. 1995. The Holy Qur’an: With English Translation and Commentary. Ahmadiyyah Anjuman Ishaat Islam: Lahore USA.

 

Mansoor Moaddel and Kamran Talattof (eds). 2002. Modernist and Fundamentalist Debates in Islam: A Reader. Palgrave Macmillan: New York.

 

Cafer S. Yaran. 2007. Understanding Islam. Dunedin Academic Press Ltd: Scotland.

 

Mamoud Abu-Saud. 1983. Concept of Islam. American Trust Publications: Indiana USA

 

 

 

 

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Suleiman the Magnificent

Suleiman the Magnificent

Suleiman ‘the Magnificent’ is one of the most celebrated Sultans of Ottoman history. He ruled for forty-six years and was known the world over for the magnificence and splendour of his court, the ferociousness of his armies and his wisdom and benevolence domestically. The life of Suleiman is a fascinating story of court intrigues, military conquests and family bloodshed. He was the ruler of a respected empire that made the West tremble with fear. In an era full of strong and charismatic Kings and Emperors, Suleiman made his own mark in history and commanded the respect of Europe during his reign of the Ottoman Empire.

Suleiman: The Early Years

Suleiman is believed to have been born late in the year of 1494 or early in 1495 (Itzkowitz 1980: 34). Although little is known of Suleiman’s childhood, like many Turkish princes, it is likely that he spent the first seven years of his life being raised exclusively by his mother – Hafsa Hatun – in the women’s quarters (Clot 2005: 26). Suleiman’s father, Selim, had five living brothers. As such, it was not apparent that Suleiman would necessarily ever ascend the throne. From the age of seven to eleven years Selim would have taken control of his sons education and had a tutor assigned to him, ensuring that he learnt arithmetic, music, reading, writing, archery and Koran studies (Clot 2005: 26). At the age of eleven Suleiman left the women’s quarters and was assigned his own personal residence, complete with servants, a budget and tutor. At the age of fifteen, Suleiman was appointed as governor of Caffa in Crimea by his grandfather, Sultan Bayezid II (Clot 2005: 26).

During this era, the eldest son was not automatically assured of the throne. As all male members of a family possessed equal rights under Turco-Mongol law, it was common for inter-familial rivals to the throne to emerge (Clot 2005: 340). In an effort to secure the unity of the empire at all costs, it became customary to do away with anyone, including siblings, who posed a threat to the Sultan. This became formalized as the practice of fratricide by Mehmed II in the following decree: “Most legalists have declared as permitted that whichever of my illustrious sons or grandsons attains supreme power can sacrifice his brothers to maintain the peace of the world; they should take the appropriate measures (Clot 2005: 340).” Suleiman’s father, Salim, was not a Sultan during this time and had four living brothers. Two of Salim’s brothers died, leaving the contest for the throne between Salim and his two remaining brothers: Korkud and the eldest son, Ahmed. Salim took up arms against Korkud and then in turn, Ahmed. After having defeated Korkud, Selim was able to pressure his father into abdicating his throne and handing it over to him. Consequently, on the 26 May 1512 Selim I ascended the throne. Upon his accession of the throne Selim had his brothers and their children strangled to death (Clot 2005: 28). Suleiman had three sisters and it is believed that he also had at least two brothers – both presumably executed by Selim (Merriman 1966: 31).

Suleiman the Sultan

At Salim’s death in 1520, Suleiman became the tenth sultan of the Ottoman empire. He took the crown nine days after Selim I died on the 30th September 1520 (Clot 2005: 29). In Islam, ten is considered a perfect number, as it is the number of fingers on the Prophet Muhammad’s hands, as well as the number of Mohammad’s disciples. It is also the number of commandments in the Pentateuch and of the parts and variants of the Koran (Merriman 1966: 31). As such, Suleiman took the throne at a very auspicious time, both having the superstitious populations blessing and becoming Sultan of an already very rich and powerful empire with no direct threats to speak of.

Suleiman distinguished himself from the bloodthirsty reign of his father early on. His first act as Sultan was to pay his donation to the Janissaries and various officials. He then made distinct and impressive acts of mercy by freeing six hundred Egyptian captives. He also granted indemnity to the many merchants who had their goods confiscated for trading with Persia (Merriman 1966: 31). Suleiman also executed a number of officials who had been close to his father and as such, gained the reputation of being just but strict.

Interestingly, Suleiman became Sultan at a time in history when many of the European leaders were similarly aged and also had strong, charismatic personalities. Suleiman became Sultan when he was twenty-six years of age, which was the same age as King Francis I of France (Merriman 1966: 33). England’s infamous king, Henry VIII was in power at this time and was only three years Suleiman’s senior (Merriman 1966: 33). The King of Spain, Charles V was twenty; and the King of Hungary and Bohemia was only fourteen (Merriman 1966: 33).  While Suleiman was young at the time he became Sultan, he was by no means at a disadvantage compared to his European neighbours. Furthermore, Suleiman had ten years of governing experience under his belt before he took the throne.

Military Life

Where Salim had militarily concentrated on Asia and Africa, Suleiman looked towards the West and Europe in which to participate politically and plot his conquests (Merriman 1966: 51). Suleiman focused militarily on conquering Belgrade and the Island of Rhodes. Belgrade blocked the Ottomans from continuing up the Danube and confronting the Hapsburgs; while Rhodes was a Christian Island guarded by the Knights of St. John blocking Ottoman fleets from sailing into the Western Mediterranean or outside the Dardanelles (Merriman 1966: 51). In 1521 Suleiman conquered Belgrade and followed this success by laying siege to Rhodes. The fortress at Rhodes was considered the strongest of all fortresses in the sixteenth century. Suleiman however, had his soldiers (mostly Christians) dig under the foundations of the fortress and plant gunpowder to blow down the walls. Finally, in 1522 Suleiman defeated Rhodes and established himself a reputation of military might that impressed his senior officials and worried his European neighbours (Itzkowitz 1980:35). During Suleiman’s time he led thirteen campaigns conquering Hungary and advancing west as far as Vienna. In the east, Ottoman forces conquered Iraq and in the Mediterranean their naval fleet captured all principal North African ports (Yalman: The Metropolitan Museum of Art). At the height of Suleiman’s reign the Ottoman Empire stretched from the Arabian Peninsula to the border of Austria and from the border of Iran into North Africa (McCarthy 1997: 110).

(Map of Ottoman Empire. Sourced from: http://theopavlidis.com/MidEast/part45.htm)

Domestic Rule

Suleiman had many wives and a harem filled with approximately 300 women as was customary in the day (Merriman 1966: 189). Suleiman’s favourite and most influential wife was Hurrem or, as the West know her, Roxelana. Roxelana held great influence over the Sultan and is even said to have influenced his decisions regarding the Grand Viziers appointments, executions or dismissals (McCarthy 1997: 92). Roxelana also greatly influenced the decision of whom the next Sultan ought to be. Mustafa, who was the son of Suleiman to another wife, was generally thought to be the most capable successor to Suleiman. Roxelana however, wanting one of her own sons – Selim or Bayezit – to become Sultan convinced Suleiman that Mustafa was plotting against him (Yermolenko 2005: 234). Consequently, Mustafa was killed and Roxelana’s favourite son, Selim became the next Sultan upon Suleiman’s death.

In the West, Suleiman was known as ‘the Magnificent’ due to the splendour of his court and the impressiveness of his armies. Domestically however, the Turkish people knew Suleiman as sultan “Kanuni” – ‘the lawgiver (McCarthy 1997: 87).’ One of the greatest things Suleiman did for the Ottoman Empire and its people was to codify the law. Law in the Muslim societies was often presided over by religious leaders and based on religious interpretations. Suleiman introduced beaurocracy and administrative order into his kingdom by dealing with matters of taxation and land tenures. Suleiman codified laws that stipulated not only how their subjects were to behave, but also outlined the roles and responsibilities of the rulers. They outlined how they were to rule and even outlined guidelines for the Sultan, like when he was allowed to confiscate property (McCarthy 1997: 92). The Ottoman laws set forth by Suleiman gave the Sultan absolute rights in areas of the state and administration. Suleiman’s laws also at times dealt with matters that were traditionally dealt with by Muslim religious law such as many civil crimes.

Although Suleiman was a deeply religious leader, he was not fanatical and did not believe in the persecution of Muslim heretics or Christians (Merriman 1966: 33). Suleiman for the most part believed in religious freedom for his constituents so long as they paid their taxes and accepted his ultimate authority. Suleiman was very charitable, making it a priority during his reign to build soup kitchens for the poor, as well as school, hospitals and libraries (McCarthy 1997: 93).

References

Clot, Andre. 2005. Suleiman the Magnificent. Saqi Books: London.

Itzkowitz, Norman. 1980. Ottoman Empire and Islamic Tradition. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago.

McCarthy, Justin. 1997. The Ottoman Turks: An Introductory History to 1923. Addison Wesley Longman Ltd: England.

Merriman, Roger Bigelow. 1966. Suleiman The Magnificent 1520-1566. Cooper Square Publishers Inc: New York.

Yalman, Suzan. 2002. The Age of Süleyman “the Magnificent” (r. 1520–1566): Thematic Essay. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/suly/hd_suly.htm.

Yermolenko, Galina. 2005. ‘Roxolana: “The Greatest Empresse of the East.” The Muslim World. 95(2): 231-248.

For more information on Suleiman and the Ottoman Empire go to:

http://www.theottomans.org/english/index.asp

For more information on Suleiman and Turkish artwork from the Ottoman Empire go to:

http://www.paradoxplace.com/Perspectives/Genl%20Images/Single%20Frames/Suleiman.htm

For more information on Ottoman timelines, maps and artwork go to:

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on Suleiman the Magnificent

Uni Blog Project 1: Suleiman the Magnificent

Suleiman the Magnificent

Suleiman ‘the Magnificent’ is one of the most celebrated Sultans of Ottoman history. He ruled for forty-six years and was known the world over for the magnificence and splendour of his court, the ferociousness of his armies and his wisdom and benevolence domestically. The life of Suleiman is a fascinating story of court intrigues, military conquests and family bloodshed. He was the ruler of a respected empire that made the West tremble with fear. In an era full of strong and charismatic Kings and Emperors, Suleiman made his own mark in history and commanded the respect of Europe during his reign of the Ottoman Empire.

Suleiman: The Early Years

Suleiman is believed to have been born late in the year of 1494 or early in 1495 (Itzkowitz 1980: 34). Although little is known of Suleiman’s childhood, like many Turkish princes, it is likely that he spent the first seven years of his life being raised exclusively by his mother – Hafsa Hatun – in the women’s quarters (Clot 2005: 26). Suleiman’s father, Selim, had five living brothers. As such, it was not apparent that Suleiman would necessarily ever ascend the throne. From the age of seven to eleven years Selim would have taken control of his sons education and had a tutor assigned to him, ensuring that he learnt arithmetic, music, reading, writing, archery and Koran studies (Clot 2005: 26). At the age of eleven Suleiman left the women’s quarters and was assigned his own personal residence, complete with servants, a budget and tutor. At the age of fifteen, Suleiman was appointed as governor of Caffa in Crimea by his grandfather, Sultan Bayezid II (Clot 2005: 26).

During this era, the eldest son was not automatically assured of the throne. As all male members of a family possessed equal rights under Turco-Mongol law, it was common for inter-familial rivals to the throne to emerge (Clot 2005: 340). In an effort to secure the unity of the empire at all costs, it became customary to do away with anyone, including siblings, who posed a threat to the Sultan. This became formalized as the practice of fratricide by Mehmed II in the following decree: “Most legalists have declared as permitted that whichever of my illustrious sons or grandsons attains supreme power can sacrifice his brothers to maintain the peace of the world; they should take the appropriate measures (Clot 2005: 340).” Suleiman’s father, Salim, was not a Sultan during this time and had four living brothers. Two of Salim’s brothers died, leaving the contest for the throne between Salim and his two remaining brothers: Korkud and the eldest son, Ahmed. Salim took up arms against Korkud and then in turn, Ahmed. After having defeated Korkud, Selim was able to pressure his father into abdicating his throne and handing it over to him. Consequently, on the 26 May 1512 Selim I ascended the throne. Upon his accession of the throne Selim had his brothers and their children strangled to death (Clot 2005: 28). Suleiman had three sisters and it is believed that he also had at least two brothers – both presumably executed by Selim (Merriman 1966: 31).

Suleiman the Sultan

At Salim’s death in 1520, Suleiman became the tenth sultan of the Ottoman empire. He took the crown nine days after Selim I died on the 30th September 1520 (Clot 2005: 29). In Islam, ten is considered a perfect number, as it is the number of fingers on the Prophet Muhammad’s hands, as well as the number of Mohammad’s disciples. It is also the number of commandments in the Pentateuch and of the parts and variants of the Koran (Merriman 1966: 31). As such, Suleiman took the throne at a very auspicious time, both having the superstitious populations blessing and becoming Sultan of an already very rich and powerful empire with no direct threats to speak of.

Suleiman distinguished himself from the bloodthirsty reign of his father early on. His first act as Sultan was to pay his donation to the Janissaries and various officials. He then made distinct and impressive acts of mercy by freeing six hundred Egyptian captives. He also granted indemnity to the many merchants who had their goods confiscated for trading with Persia (Merriman 1966: 31). Suleiman also executed a number of officials who had been close to his father and as such, gained the reputation of being just but strict.

Interestingly, Suleiman became Sultan at a time in history when many of the European leaders were similarly aged and also had strong, charismatic personalities. Suleiman became Sultan when he was twenty-six years of age, which was the same age as King Francis I of France (Merriman 1966: 33). England’s infamous king, Henry VIII was in power at this time and was only three years Suleiman’s senior (Merriman 1966: 33). The King of Spain, Charles V was twenty; and the King of Hungary and Bohemia was only fourteen (Merriman 1966: 33).  While Suleiman was young at the time he became Sultan, he was by no means at a disadvantage compared to his European neighbours. Furthermore, Suleiman had ten years of governing experience under his belt before he took the throne.

Military Life

Where Salim had militarily concentrated on Asia and Africa, Suleiman looked towards the West and Europe in which to participate politically and plot his conquests (Merriman 1966: 51). Suleiman focused militarily on conquering Belgrade and the Island of Rhodes. Belgrade blocked the Ottomans from continuing up the Danube and confronting the Hapsburgs; while Rhodes was a Christian Island guarded by the Knights of St. John blocking Ottoman fleets from sailing into the Western Mediterranean or outside the Dardanelles (Merriman 1966: 51). In 1521 Suleiman conquered Belgrade and followed this success by laying siege to Rhodes. The fortress at Rhodes was considered the strongest of all fortresses in the sixteenth century. Suleiman however, had his soldiers (mostly Christians) dig under the foundations of the fortress and plant gunpowder to blow down the walls. Finally, in 1522 Suleiman defeated Rhodes and established himself a reputation of military might that impressed his senior officials and worried his European neighbours (Itzkowitz 1980:35). During Suleiman’s time he led thirteen campaigns conquering Hungary and advancing west as far as Vienna. In the east, Ottoman forces conquered Iraq and in the Mediterranean their naval fleet captured all principal North African ports (Yalman: The Metropolitan Museum of Art). At the height of Suleiman’s reign the Ottoman Empire stretched from the Arabian Peninsula to the border of Austria and from the border of Iran into North Africa (McCarthy 1997: 110).

(Map of Ottoman Empire. Sourced from: http://theopavlidis.com/MidEast/part45.htm)

Domestic Rule

Suleiman had many wives and a harem filled with approximately 300 women as was customary in the day (Merriman 1966: 189). Suleiman’s favourite and most influential wife was Hurrem or, as the West know her, Roxelana. Roxelana held great influence over the Sultan and is even said to have influenced his decisions regarding the Grand Viziers appointments, executions or dismissals (McCarthy 1997: 92). Roxelana also greatly influenced the decision of whom the next Sultan ought to be. Mustafa, who was the son of Suleiman to another wife, was generally thought to be the most capable successor to Suleiman. Roxelana however, wanting one of her own sons – Selim or Bayezit – to become Sultan convinced Suleiman that Mustafa was plotting against him (Yermolenko 2005: 234). Consequently, Mustafa was killed and Roxelana’s favourite son, Selim became the next Sultan upon Suleiman’s death.

In the West, Suleiman was known as ‘the Magnificent’ due to the splendour of his court and the impressiveness of his armies. Domestically however, the Turkish people knew Suleiman as sultan “Kanuni” – ‘the lawgiver (McCarthy 1997: 87).’ One of the greatest things Suleiman did for the Ottoman Empire and its people was to codify the law. Law in the Muslim societies was often presided over by religious leaders and based on religious interpretations. Suleiman introduced beaurocracy and administrative order into his kingdom by dealing with matters of taxation and land tenures. Suleiman codified laws that stipulated not only how their subjects were to behave, but also outlined the roles and responsibilities of the rulers. They outlined how they were to rule and even outlined guidelines for the Sultan, like when he was allowed to confiscate property (McCarthy 1997: 92). The Ottoman laws set forth by Suleiman gave the Sultan absolute rights in areas of the state and administration. Suleiman’s laws also at times dealt with matters that were traditionally dealt with by Muslim religious law such as many civil crimes.

Although Suleiman was a deeply religious leader, he was not fanatical and did not believe in the persecution of Muslim heretics or Christians (Merriman 1966: 33). Suleiman for the most part believed in religious freedom for his constituents so long as they paid their taxes and accepted his ultimate authority. Suleiman was very charitable, making it a priority during his reign to build soup kitchens for the poor, as well as school, hospitals and libraries (McCarthy 1997: 93).

References

Clot, Andre. 2005. Suleiman the Magnificent. Saqi Books: London.

Itzkowitz, Norman. 1980. Ottoman Empire and Islamic Tradition. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago.

McCarthy, Justin. 1997. The Ottoman Turks: An Introductory History to 1923. Addison Wesley Longman Ltd: England.

Merriman, Roger Bigelow. 1966. Suleiman The Magnificent 1520-1566. Cooper Square Publishers Inc: New York.

Yalman, Suzan. 2002. The Age of Süleyman “the Magnificent” (r. 1520–1566): Thematic Essay. The Metropolitan Museum of Art: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/suly/hd_suly.htm.

Yermolenko, Galina. 2005. ‘Roxolana: “The Greatest Empresse of the East.” The Muslim World. 95(2): 231-248.

For more information on Suleiman and the Ottoman Empire go to:

http://www.theottomans.org/english/index.asp

For more information on Suleiman and Turkish artwork from the Ottoman Empire go to:

http://www.paradoxplace.com/Perspectives/Genl%20Images/Single%20Frames/Suleiman.htm

For more information on Ottoman timelines, maps and artwork go to:

http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/

Posted in Uncategorized | Comments Off on Uni Blog Project 1: Suleiman the Magnificent

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